Greenhouse gas emission intensity from Indonesian livestock sector
The objectives of this study were to examine the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity (EI) from livestock sector in Indonesia, and also to suggest mitigation measures for the emissions. GHG emissions were calculated by using 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guideline (2006 IPCC GL) Tier 1 method based on carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) with default values except for Indonesian livestock population. GHG EI (emissions intensity) of livestock sector in Indonesia was calculated by dividing total GHG emissions by Indonesian meat production from livestock commodities. In 2015, beef cattle contributed 66.99% from total GHG emissions from livestock sector, followed by goat (8.38%), sheep (7.40%), buffalo (6.89%), swine (5.03%), broiler chicken (3.80%), and horse (0.72%). However, in 2015, buffalo showed the highest EI (kgCO2eq/kg meat) by 6.44, followed by beef cattle (5.88), sheep (4.69), goat (4.07), swine (3.50), horse (3.09), and broiler chicken (0.38). EIs from swine, goat, sheep, broiler chicken, horse, beef cattle, and buffalo decreased by 60.77%, 58.59%, 46.68%, 21.30%, 18.15%, 19.94%, and 13.13% from 2000 to 2015, respectively. Results of GHG emissions and GHG EIs from each livestock category in Indonesia shown the improvement direction in order to mitigate GHG emission. Therefore, Indonesian government should focus on the beef cattle and buffalo that are a high contribution on GHG emissions and high EI by increasing the efficiency of livestock rearing management such as livestock health, genetic, diets, and environment.
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