Impact of heat stress, nutritional stress and their combinations on the adaptive capability of Malpura sheep under hot semi-arid tropical environment
A study was conducted to assess the cumulative effects of combined stresses (heat and nutritional) on physiological adaptability, blood biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura rams. The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. Twenty eight adult Malpura rams (average BW 66.0 Kg) were used in the present study. The rams were divided into four groups viz., CON (n=7; control), HS (n=7; heat stress), NS (n=7; nutritional stress) and CS (n=7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. The CON and HS ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while NS and CS rams were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and NS rams were kept in climatic chamber @ 42ºC and 55% RH for six hours a day between 10:00 hr to 16:00 hr to induce heat stress. The parameters studied were respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), rectal temperature (RT), scrotal volume, sweating rate scrotum, sweating rate skin, haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), plasma cortisol, T3 (tri-iodo-thyronine), and T4 (thyroxin) level. Combined stresses significantly (P<0.01) influenced all adaptive parameters studied. The study shows that Malpura rams possess the adaptive capability to two stresses simultaneously. This is evident from the non-significant changes in RR, RT, sweating rate of scrotum and skin and Hb concentration between HS and CS groups. Further, the capability to adjust the cortisol level to minimum possible increase to elicit the heat stress relieving effects also proves the superior adaptive capability of Malpura rams to the effects of combined stresses.
Al-Haidary AA (2004) Physiological responses of Naimey sheep to heat stress challenge under semi-arid environments. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 2:307-309.
Ali A, Hayder M (2008) Seasonal variation of reproductive performance, foetal development and progesterone concentrations of sheep in the subtropics. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43:730-734.
Alvarez MB, Johnson HD (1973) Environmental heat exposure on cattle plasma catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Journal of Dairy Science 56:189-194.
Balasubramaniam P, Malathi A (1992) Comparative study of hemoglobin estimated by Drabkin’s and Sahli’s methods. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 38:8-9.
Barkai D, Landau S, Brosh A, Baram H, Molle G (2002) Estimation of energy intake from heart rate and energy expenditure in sheep under confinement or grazing condition. Livestock Production Science 73:237-246.
Broucek J, Kisac P, Uhrincat M (2009) Effect of hot temperatures on the hematological parameters, health and performance of calves. International Journal of Biometeorology 53:201–208.
Daramola JO, Adeloye AA (2009) Physiological adaptation to humid tropics with special references to the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41:1005-1016.
Habeeb AA (1987) The role of insulin in improving productivity of heat-stressed farm animals with different techniques. PhD thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Hatfield J, Boote K, Fay P, Hahn LC, Izaurralde BA, Kimball T, Mader J, Morgan D, Ort W, Polley A, Thomson WD (2008) Agriculture. In: The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Washington, DC., USA, pp 362.
Jain NC (1986) Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
Marai IFM, El-Darawany AA, Fadiel A, Abdel-Hafez MAM (2007) Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep. Small Ruminants Research 71:1-12.
Marai IFM, Habeeb AAM, Gad AE (2002) Reproductive traits of female rabbits as affected by heat stress and light regime, under sub-tropical conditions of Egypt. Journal of Animal Science 75:451-458.
McManus C, Paludo GR, Louvandini H, Gugel R, Sasaki LCB, Paiva SR (2009) Heat tolerance in Brazilian sheep: physiological and blood parameters. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41:95–101.
Moberg GP (2000) Biological responses to stress. Implications for animal welfare. In: Moberg GP, Mench JP (eds), Biology of animal stress, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Naqvi SMK, Hooda, OK (1991) Influence of thermal, nutritional and exercise stress on some blood parameters of native and crossbred sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Science 61:660–662.
Nazifi S, Saeb M, Rowghani E, Kaveh K (2003) The influence of thermal stress on serum biochemical parameters of Iranian fat-tailed sheep and their correlation with triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentrations. Comparative Clinical Pathology 12:135-139.
Rasooli A, Nouri M, Khadjeh GH, Rasekh A (2004) The influence of seasonal variations on thyroid activity and some biochemical parameters of cattle. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 5:1383-1391.
Schleger AV, Turner HG (1965) Sweating rates of cattle in the field and their reaction to diurnal and seasonal changes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 16:92‐106.
Sejian V, Srivastava RS (2010) Effects of melatonin on adrenal cortical functions of Indian goats under thermal stress. Veterinary Medicine International doi:10.4061/2010/348919
Sejian V, Maurya VP, Naqvi SMK (2010) Adaptability and growth of Malpura ewes subjected to thermal and nutritional stress. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42:1763-1770.
Sejian V, Maurya VP, Naqvi SMK (2010) Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) under semi-arid tropical environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 54:653-661.
Sejian V, Maurya VP, Naqvi SMK (2011) Effect of thermal, nutritional and combined (thermal and nutritional) stresses on growth and reproductive performance of Malpura ewes under semi-arid tropical environment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 95:252-258.
Sejian V, Maurya VP, Kumar K, Naqvi SMK (2013) Effect of multiple stresses (thermal, nutritional and walking stress) on growth, physiological response, blood biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes under semi-arid tropical environment. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45:107-116.
Sejian V, Bahadur S, Naqvi SMK (2014) Effect of nutritional restriction on growth, adaptation physiology and estrous responses in Malpura ewes. Animal Biology 64:189-205.
St-Pierre NR, Cobanov B, Schnitkey G (2003) Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. Journal of Dairy Science 86:52–77.
Tietz NW (1976) Clinical guide to Laboratory Tests, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Umesiobi DO, Iloeje MU, Ibokwe IO, Berepubo NA, Imumorin IG (2005) Physiological and biochemical responses of West African dwarf sheep to partial feed restriction. Indian Journal of Animal Science 75:956-960.