Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
https://jabbnet.com/article/doi/10.31893/jabb.20006
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

Carrying capacity estimation of Sumatran elephant habitat (Elephas maximus sumatranus T) in Tesso Nilo National Park

Defri Yoza, Yusni Ikhwan Siregar, Aras Mulyadi, Sujianto

Downloads: 2
Views: 370

Abstract

Forest encroachment reduces elephant habitat area while oil palm plantations and industrial plantations reduce and even cut the elephant roaming area​. This study aims to estimate the carrying capacity of elephant habitat in Tesso Nilo National Park, Indonesia. Data collection on elephant populations uses direct and indirect surveys. Direct surveys are carried out by direct encounter with the elephants and counting is done at the meeting. The indirect survey was carried out in two ways, namely by counting dung and traces of elephants as well as interviews with mahout and the community.  Dung calculation is done by the path method that is on the elephant roaming track. Interviews of mahout and community were conducted to find out the number of elephants passing through residential areas. Based on the results of the study, the capacity of 1 ha of Sumatran elephant feed support was 0.05 Elephants/day for the secondary forest with proper use (P) of 60% with a growth cycle of 60 days. In the area of ​​1,590.18 ha, the carrying capacity of secondary forest feed can accommodate 83.93 Elephants /day or 84 Elephants/day. One elephant in the secondary forest can be fulfilled their needs with an area of ​​18.95 ha or means that 1 ha of secondary forest is only able to provide 0.05 Elephants/ day. In shrubs, habitat shows that 1 ha of the shrubs can support 0.21 Elephants /day or with an area of ​​2,132.90 ha capable of supporting elephants as much as 447.91 Elephants/day or 448 Elephants/day. One elephant can be fulfilled with an area of ​​4.76 ha of bush per day. This shows that the availability of feed in 1 ha of Tesso Nilo National Park area is insufficient for 1 elephant.

Keywords

dung, feed, natural forest, shrubs

References

Alikodra HS (1990) Management of Wild Life Vol. 1. Center for Inter-University Life Sciences. Bogor: Bogor Agricultural Institute.

Abdullah (2002) Carrying Capacity Estimation of Sumatran Elephant Habitats (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck) in the Tesso Nilo Riau Forest Area. (Thesis). Department of Biology, Major of Ecology. Faculty of Math and Science. Bandung: Bandung Institute of Technology.

Barnes RFW (2001) How reliable are counts for estimating elephant numbers? African Journal of Ecology 39:1-9.

Tesso Nilo National Park Office. Tesso Nilo National Park Management Plan (2005-2025).

Desai A, Syamsuardi (2009) Status of Elephants In Riau Province, Sumatra WWF Indonesia.

IUCN – The World Conservation Union (2004) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Accessed on February 16, 2014).

Lahkar (2007) An assessment of human elephant conflict in Manas National Park, Assam, India.

Ramono WS (2001) Sumatran Elephants and their Problems. In Proceedings of the Sumatran Elephant Conservation Workshop. April 24-25 2000. Cisarua. Bogor.

Rizwar D, Zulfian (2001) Population Density and Elephant Habitat Conditions Elephas maximus sumatranus in Forest Fragmentation Around the Kerinci Seblat National Park Area, North Bengkulu Regency.

Santiapillai C, Suprahman H (1986) The Ecology of the Elephant (Elephas maximus L.) in the Way Kambas Game Reserve, Sumatra. Unpublished report, WWF / IUCN Project 3133, WWF, Indonesia.

Soegianto A (1994) Quantitative Ecology: Population and Community Analysis Methods. National Business Publisher. Jakarta.

Soehartono T, Susilo HD, Sitompul AF, Gunaryadi D, Purastuti EM, Azmi W, Fadhli N, Stremme C (2007) The Strategic and Action Plan for Sumatran and Kalimantan elephant. Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta. Indonesia.

Solichin (2009) Guide to the Forest Carobon Inventory: Case study in the peat swamp forest of Merang, South Sumatra. Merang REDD Pilot Project-GIZ. Palembang.

Sugiyanto EEL,  Erianto, Prayogo H (2017)  Availability of Feed of Sumatran Elephants (Elephas Maximus Sumatranus Temminck, 1847) At Air Hitam Resort Tesso Nilo National Park Pelalawan District, Riau Province. Journal of Sustainable Forests 5:147-155.

Sukumar R (1989) The Asian Elephant Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press.

Sukumar R (2003) The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Oxford University Press, USA.

Supartono (2007) Preference and Estimation of Natural Feed Productivity Population of Sumatran Elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temmick, 1847) in the Seblat Elephant Training Center (PLG) of North Bengkulu. IPB Graduate School Thesis.

Syarifuddin H (2008) Carrying Capacity Analysis of Habitat and Dynamics Modeling of Sumatran Elephants: A Case Study in the Seblat Region of North Bengkulu Regency. (Dissertation). Bogor (ID): Bogor Agricultural University.

UNEP-WCMC (2003) UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species on the World Wide Accessed on April 20, 2013.

World Wildlife Fund/WWF (2017) Number of Elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park.

Yoza, D, Sari I (2008) Carrying Capacity Estimation of Sumatran Elephant Habitats (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck, 1847) Based on Feed Availability in Pelalawan Resort Tesso Nilo National Park. Research Report.

Zahrah M (2002) Community Characteristics Analysis of Habitats Vegetation of Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in East Aceh District Forest Areas and Langkat District. IPB Graduate Program Thesis. Not published.


Submitted date:
06/10/2019

Accepted date:
08/14/2019

5f8c90150e8825c36ca77e77 jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J Anim Behav Biometeorol

Share this page
Page Sections