Radionuclide migration and organoleptic characteristics of beef in the adjacent areas to the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site
This article presents the results of the migration of radionuclides along the soil-water-feed-animal livestock chain in the adjacent territories of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). To analyze the radio ecological situation in the territory adjacent to the SNTS, 6 stationary control points were created, from which samples of soil, water, vegetation, and animal products were taken. The radiometric method was used to determine the radioactive background of the studied areas. Gamma-, alpha-spectrometry methods were used to study the content of radionuclides. The radionuclide transfer along the soil-water-feed-animal livestock chain was determined by a calculation method and also veterinary and sanitary examination of the beef selected from these items. The research results show that in all the test points under study the EDR values, the beta-particles flux density is below the limit of permissible values. The samples detected radionuclides as Am-241, Cs-137 and Pu-239/240 not exceeding the standards established by the Hygienic standards of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The chain of radionuclides was transferred to animal products. The organoleptic assessment of the quality of cattle meat showed that inconsistencies are observed: a slight increase in lymph nodes, muddy broth, and surface moisture of muscle.
Amirbekov ShA, Dyusembaev ST, Amirkhanov KZh, Kakimov AK, Yessimbekov ZhS (2013) Current radioecological situation in the territories adjacent to the NPS. Dissertation, Scientific Center for Radioecological Research.
Apsalikov KN, Lipikhina A, Grosche B, Belikhina T (2019) The state scientific automated medical registry, Kazakhstan: an important resource for low-dose radiation health research. Biophysik. doi: 10.1007/s00411-018-0762-5.
Balmukhanov SB, Abdrakhmanov JN, Balmukhanov TS, Gusev BI, Kurakina NN, Raisov TG (2006) Medical effects and dosimetric data from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site. The technical report, Defense Threat Reduction Agency.
Dyussembaev ST, Serikova AT, Iminova DE (2013) Guidelines for radiological monitoring, veterinary and sanitary examination of animal products and radiation dose load on farm animals. Intellect publishing house, Semey.
Gorlachev I, Kharkin P, Dyussembayeva M, Lukashenko S, Gluchshenko G, Matiyenko L, Zheltov D, Kitamura A, Khlebnikov N (2019) Comparative analysis of water contamination of the Shagan river at the Semipalatinsk test site with heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.106110.
Gudkov IN (1991) Fundamentals of general and agricultural radiobiology: Studies аor universities. USKhA, Kiev.
Karabalin BK, Mukusheva MK, Kayrambayev SK (2001) Assessment of an average annual efficient dose of internal radiation of the population of the region of Semipalatinsk proving ground. NNC Bulletin 3:79-84.
Kudryavtsev VN (1991) Migration of Cs-137 in the food chain of cattle and the regulation of the receipt of the radionuclide in its links. Dissertation. Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology.
Larionova NV, Lukashenko SN, Kunduzbaeva AE, Ivanova AR, Keller SA (2011) Features of the transition of artificial radionuclides from soil to plants of steppe ecosystems at the site "Experimental field" of the former SIP. Actual Issues of Radioecology of Kazakhstan 3:85-99.
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 18, 1992 N 1787-XII. About social protection of the citizens who injured owing to nuclear tests at Semipalatinsk proving nuclear test site. https://online.zakon.kz/document/?doc_id=1001550#pos=31;-155.
Lukashenko SN (2008) Complex studying of migration of radionuclides in the soil, water, plants, animals and influence of small chronic doses of radiation on biological objects in places of water manifestations of adits of the massif. The closing report, Institute of radiation safety and ecology of SENTS RK.
Panitskiy AV, Lukashenko SN, Batyrbekov EG, Berezin SA, Umarov MA, Strilchuk YuG, Yakovlev VV (2019) Practical experience in applying remediation methods at the Semipalatinsk test site (Kazakhstan). In: Gupta D, Voronina A (eds) Remediation Measures for Radioactively Contaminated Areas. Cham, Springer.
International Atomic Energy Agency (1998) Radiological conditions at the Semipalatinsk test site, Kazakhstan: preliminary assessment and recommendations for further study. IAEA, Vienna.
Rikhvanov LP (2009) Radioelements in a surrounding medium and radioecology problems. STT, Tomsk.
Semenova Y, Pivina L, Belikhina T, Manatova A, Bulegenov T, Zhuanyshev T (2018) Food safety practices in the territories adjacent to the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test. European Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky213.515
Semenova Y, Pivina L, Manatova A, Bjørklund G, Glushkova N, Belikhina T, Dauletyarova M, Zhunussova T (2019) Mental distress in the rural Kazakhstani population exposed and non-exposed to radiation from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 203:39-47.
Spiridonov C, Mukusheva MK, Choubina OA, Solomatin VM, Yepifanov IE (2008) Assessment of population exposure doses as a result of a radio contamination of the territory of Semipalatinsk proving ground Radiation Biology Radioecology 48:218-224.