Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

Effect of wetting method on the broiler transport in Brazilian Northeast

Daniel Gurgel Pinheiro, José Antonio Delfino Barbosa Filho, Nítalo André Farias Machado

Downloads: 0
Views: 22


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the load wetting method to attenuate the ambience of the load the transport of broilers. Fourteen commercial consignments were monitored over a 25 km route, and in seven of these, the load wetting was carried (LW) out while in the other seven no wetting was done (LD). The temperatures of the side, top and rear load boxes were analyzed by infrared thermography. The central row load boxes were evaluated by geostatistics, using temperature variability (TA), relative humidity (RH) and the enthalpy comfort index (ECI). The mean was compared by Student's t-test (P < 0.05). The results showed that load wetting has a momentary effect (P < 0.05). The boxes located in the central rows in the LW showed a higher (P < 0.05) ECI compared to those in the LD. In addition, areas classified as lethal were formed in the LW. In conclusion, load wetting was not an efficient method to attenuate the ambience of load during the commercial transport of broilers, as it only has momentary and transient effects.


ambience, animal welfare, bioclimatology, pre-slaughter, thermography


Barbosa-Filho JAD, Queiroz ML, Brasil DF, Vieira FMC, Silva IJ (2014) Transport of broilers: load microclimate during Brazilian summer. Engenharia Agrícola 34:405-421.

Barbosa-Filho JAD, Vieira FMC, Silva IJO, Garcia DB, Silva MAN, Fonseca BHF (2009) Transporte de frangos: caracterização do microclima na carga durante o inverno. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 38:2442-2446.

Çengel YA and Ghajar A (2012) Heat transfer and mass: a practical approach. 4ª edn. AMG, New York, USA.

Gilkeson CA, Thompson HM, Wilson MCT, Gaskell PH (2016) Quantifying passive ventilation within small livestock trailers using Computational Fluid Dynamic. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 124:84-99.

Gilkeson CA, Thompson HM, Wilson MCT, Gaskell PH, Barnard RH (2009) An experimental and computational study of the aerodynamic and passive ventilation characteristics of small livestock trailers. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 97:415-425.

Hunter RR, Mitchell MA, Carlisle AJ (1999) Wetting of broilers during cold weather transport: a major source of physiological stress? British Poultry Science 40:48-49.

Hunter RR, Mitchell MA, Matheu C. (1997) Distribution of “Dead on Arrivals” within the bio-load on commercial broiler transporters: correlation with climatic conditions and ventilation regimen. British Poultry Science 38:7-9.

Kettlewell PJ, Hoxey RP, Hampson JC, Green NR, Vale BM, Mitchell MA (2001) Design and Operation of a Prototype Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Transport Vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79:429-439.

Kettlewell PJ, Mitchell MA, Meehan, A (1993) The distribution of thermal loads within poultry transport vehicles. Agricultural Engineer 48:26-30.

Lima LR, Barbosa-Filho JAD, Freitas ER, Souza DH, Viana VSS, Machado, NAF, Nepomuceno RC (2019) Effect of Different Breeding Densities and Inclusion of Soybean Oil on Performance, Carcass Trait and Heat Loss in Meat Quails. Journal of Agricultural Science 11-130-138.

Macari M and Furlan RL (2001) Ambience in poultry production in tropical climate. FUNEP, Piracicaba.

Mitchell MA and Kettlewell PJ (1994) Road transportation of broiler-chickens – induction of physiological stress. World’s Poultry Science Journal 50:57-59.

Mitchell MA, Kettlewell PJ, Maxwell MH (1992) Indicators of physiological stress in broiler chickens during road transportation. Animal Welfare 1:91-103.

Queiroz MLV, Barbosa-Filho JAD, Sales FAL, Lima LR, Duarte LM (2017) Spatial variability in a broiler shed environment with fogging system. Ciência Agronômica 48:586-595.

Rocha LM, Devillers N, Maldague X, Kabemba FK, Fleuret J, Guay F, Faucitano L (2019) Validation of Anatomical Sites for the Measurement of Infrared Body Surface Temperature Variation in Response to Handling and Transport. Animals 9:1-18.

Rodrigues VC, Silva IJ, Vieira FM, Nascimento ST (2011) A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock, International Journal Biometeorology 55:455-459.

Rui BR, Angrimani DSR, Silva MAA (2011) Critical points in the pre-slaughter management of broiler: feed withdrawal, capture and catching, transport and lairage time in the plant. Ciência Rural 42:1-7.

Silva MAN, Barbosa-Filho JAD, Silva CJM, Rosário JMS, Silva IJO, Coelho AUD, Savino VJM (2007) Evaluation of thermal stress in simulated condition of transportation on broiler chickens. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 36:1126-1130.

Souza-Junior JBF, El-Sabrout K, Arruda AMV, Costa LLM (2019) Estimating sensible heat loss in laying hens through thermal imaging Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 166:1-5.

Spurio RS, Soares AL, Carvalho RH, Silveira-Júnior V, Grespan M, Oba A, Shimokomaki M (2016) Improving transporte container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (Pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil. Animal Science Journal 87:277-283.

Pinheiro DG (2015) Molhamento da carga como método de atenuação do estresse térmico durante o transporte de frangos vivos. Dissertação, Universidade Federal do Ceará.

Vinco LJ, Archetti IL, Giacomelli S, Lombardi G (2016). Influence of crate height on the welfare of broilers during transport. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 14:28-33.

Webster AJF, Tuddenham A, Saville CA, Scott GB (1992). Thermal stress on chickens in transit. British Poultry Science 34:267-277.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

5f8d82d00e88255676cb468b jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J Anim Behav Biometeorol

Share this page
Page Sections