Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
https://jabbnet.com/article/doi/10.31893/jabb.21017
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

Effect of different rearing condition on early age in the maze, open-field, and aversive behaviours in the dairy cow during the first lactation

Jan Broucek, Michal Uhrincat, Peter Kisac, Anton Hanus

Downloads: 0
Views: 336

Abstract

The aim of the study was to tested hypotheses that the primiparous cow’s behaviour is impacted by the method of rearing from the second day of life to weaning. 53 Holstein primiparous cows were used. They were reared in different ways during milk nutrition. Calf-heifers were assigned to one of five rearing groups on the second day after having nursed their mothers for 24 hours: H) hutch; HA) hutch, from 7 days pen with an automated drinking machine (ADM); MA) with mother, from 7 days pen with an ADM; MH) with mother, from 7 days hutch; MN) with mother, from 4 days with nursing cows. After weaning (56 days), all heifers were kept in group pens, after calving in free-stall housing. Maze learning ability was tested in the third month of lactation. In the 5th month, cows were observed in the open-field, in the seventh month they were subjected to an aversion test (AT). Group MN was the slowest in solving all tasks and HA the fastest.  Differences were recorded among groups in the first-day evaluation (P < 0.01).  No differences in open field tests were found. In the AT traversing, the slowest were groups H and HA, the fastest MH and MA (P < 0.01).  The time of the first return was different (P < 0.001). On the first day, the most vocalized cows of the MN group (P < 0.05). The results show that the method used to rear heifers may have a significant impact on their maze and aversive behaviour.

Keywords

dairy cattle, ethological test, weaning

References

Albright JL, Arave CW (1997) The Behaviour of Cattle. CAB International.

Appleby MC, Hughes BO (1997) Animal Welfare.

Arave CW, Mickelsen CH, Walters JL (1985) Effect of early rearing experience on subsequent behavior and production of Holstein heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 68:923-929.

Arave CW, Lamb RC, Arambel MJ, Purcell D, Walters JL (1992a) Behaviour and maze learning ability of dairy calves as influenced by housing, sex and sire. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33:149-163

Arave CW, Albright JL, Armstrong DV, Foster WW, Larson LL (1992b) Effects of isolation of calves on growth, behavior, and first lactation milk yield of holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 75:3408-3415.

Arave CW (1996) Assessing sensory capacity of animals using operant technology. Journal of Animal Science 74:1996-2009.

Blackshaw JK (1996) Developments in the study of human-animal relationships. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47:1-6.

Boissy A, Bouissou MF (1988) Effects of early handling on heifers subsequent reactivity to humans and to unfamiliar situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 20:259-273.

Boissy A, Bouissou MF (1995) Assessment of individual differences in behavioural reactions of heifers exposed to various fear-eliciting situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46:17-31.

Boissy A, Le Neindre P (1997) Behavioral, cardiac and cortisol responses to brief peer separation and reunion in cattle. Physiology & Behavior 61:693–699.

Bouissou MF, Boissy A, Le Neindre P, Veissier I (2001) The social behaviour of cattle. in: Keeling LJ, Gonyou HW (eds) Social Behaviour in Farm Animals. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 113–145.

Boissy A, Le Neindre P (1990) Social influences on the reactivity of heifers: Implications for learning abilities in operant conditioning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 25:149-165.

Boivin X, Le Neindre P, Chupin JM (1992) Establishment of cattle-human relationships. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32:325-335.

Boivin X, Le Neindre P, Chupin JM, Garel JP, Trillat G (1992) Influence of breed and early management on ease of handling and open-field behaviour of cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 32:313-323.

Boivin X, Le Neindre P, Garel JP, Chupin JM (1994) Influence of breed and rearing management on cattle reactions during human handling. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39:115-122.

Breuer K, Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL, Matthews LR, Coleman GJ (2000) Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66:273–288.

Broom DM, Fraser AF (2007) Domestic Animal Behaviour and Welfare. CAB International.

Broucek J, Uhrincat M, Friend TH, Arave CW, Hanus A, Kisac P (2000) Effects of rearing methods of calves prior to weaning on subsequent open-field behaviour at 28 weeks of age. Journal of Animal Science 78 (Suppl 1)/Journal of Dairy Science 83 (Suppl 1):35.

Broucek J, Arave C., Friend TH, Uhrincat M, Mihina S, Kisac P, Hanus A (2002) Effects of rearing from the second week to weaning on heifers behavior in maze learning ability tests. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science, 53:93-96.

Burrow HM (1997) Measurements of temperament and their relationships with performance traits of beef cattle. Animal Breeding Abstracts 65:477-495.

Costa JHC, von Keyserlingk MAG, Weary DM (2016) Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health. Journal of Dairy Science 99:2453–2467.

Creel SR, Albright JL (1988) The effects of neonatal social isolation on the behavior and endocrine function of holstein calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:293-306.

Dellemeier GR, Friend TH, Gbur EE (1985) Comparison of four methods of calf confinement. II. Behaviour. Journal of Animal Science 60:1102-1109.

Doyle R, Moran J (2015) Cow Talk: Understanding Dairy Cow Behaviour to Improve Their Welfare on Asian Farms. Csiro Publishing, Australia.

Flower FC, Weary DM (2001) Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf: 2. separation at 1 day and 2 weeks after birth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70:275-284.

Fraser AF, Broom DM (1997) Farm animal behaviour and welfare. CAB International.

Fujiwara M, Rushen J, Passillé de AM (2014) Dairy calves’ adaptation to group housing withautomated feeders. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 158:1–7.

Grandin T. (2019) Livestock Handling and Transport. CAB International.

Grandin T, Deesing MJ (2014) Genetics and Behavior During Handling, Restraint, and Herding. In: Grandin T (ed) Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 115-158.

Green AC, Johnston IN, Clark CEF (2018) Invited review: The evolution of cattle bioacoustics and application for advanced dairy systems. 12:1250-1259.

Hart BL (1985) Early experience and behaviour. In: Hart BL (ed) The behaviour of domestic animals. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, pp 242-262.

Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL (1987) Human-Animal Interactions. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 2:339-356.

Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL, Beveridge L (1995) The welfare of extensively managed dairy cattle: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42:161-182.

Hemsworth PH, Price E.O, Borgwardt R (1996) Behavioural responses of domestic pigs and cattle to humans and novel stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50:43-56.

Hemsworth PH, Coleman GJ (1998) Human-Livestock Interactions. The Stockperson and the Productivity and Welfare of Intensively Farmed Animals. CAB International.

Hemsworth P (2003) Human–animal interactions in livestock production. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81:185–198.

Houpt KA (1991) Domestic Animal Behavior for veterinarians and animal scientists. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Jago JG, Krohn CC, Matthews LR (1999) The influence of feeding and handling on the development of the human-animal interactions in young cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62:137-151.

Jensen MB (1999) Effects of confinement on rebounds of locomotor behaviour of calves and heifers, and the spatial preferences of calves.

Jensen MB, Vestergaard KS, Krohn ChC, Munksgaard L (1997) Effect of single versus group housing and space allowance on responses of calves during open-field tests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54:109-121.

Jensen MB, Munksgaard L, Mogensen L, Krohn CC (1999) Effect of housing in different social environments on open-field and social responses of female dairy calves. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A, Animal Science 49:113-120.

Jensen MB, Tuomisto L, Pedersen LJ (2004) Locomotor behaviour in dairy calves, the use of demand functions to assess the effect of deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 86:3–14.

Johnsen JF, Passillé de AM, Mejdell CM, Boe KE, Grondahl AM, Beaver A, Rushen J, Weary DM (2015) The effect of nursing on the cow-calf bond. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 163:50-57.

Jones RB (1997) Fear and distress. In: Appleby MC, Hughes BO (eds) Animal welfare. CAB International, pp.75-87.

Juhas P, Debreceni O, Vavrisinova K, Bulla J, Strapak P (2001) Abnormal Behaviours in Cattle in Slovakia. 17:113-118.

Juhas P, Strapak P (2013) The temperament estimation in the dairy cattle. In Book of abstracts of the 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, Wageningen Academic Publishers, 26.-30.August 2013, Nantes, 19:341.

Kilgour RJ (1975) The open-field test as an assessment of the temperament of dairy cows. Animal Behaviour 23:615-624.

Kilgour R (1981) Use of the Hebb-Williams closed-field test to study the learning ability of Jersey cows. Animal Behaviour 29:850-860.

Kilgour R, Foster TM, Temple W, Matthews LR, Bremner KJ (1991) Operant technology applied to solving farm animal problems. An assessment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30:141-166.

Lauber MC, Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL (2009) The effect of breed, time spent with dam and late pregnancy induction of parturition on behavioural development in dairy calves. Behavioural Processes 82:301–311.

Le Neindre P (1989) Influence of rearing conditions and breed on social behaviour and activity of cattle in novel environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23:129-140.

Leaver JD (1999) Dairy Cattle. In:Ewbank R, Kim-Madslien F, Hart CB (eds) Management and Welfare of Farm Animals. UFAW Farm Handbook, Universities Federation for Animal welfare, pp 17-47.

MacKay JRD, Haskell MJ, Deag JM, van Reenen K (2014) Fear responses to novelty in testing environments are related to day-to-day activity in the home environment in dairy cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 152:7-16.

Mala NovakJiroutovaKnizek ProchazkaSlavikova (2019) The effect of housing system on behaviour of dairy calves. Proceedings of the XIXth Congress International Society of Animal Hygiene, Wroclaw, Poland, pp 46-48.

Meagher RK, Daros RR, Costa JHC, von Keyserlingk MAG, Hötzel MJ, Weary DM (2015) Effects of Degree and Timing of Social Housing on Reversal Learning and Response to Novel Objects in Dairy Calves. PLoS ONE 10: e0132828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132828

Mogensen L, Krohn CC, Foldager J (2010) Long-term Effect of Housing Method during the First Three Months of Life on Human-Animal Relationship in Female Dairy Cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 49:163-171.

Munksgaard L, Jensen MB (1996) The use of "open field" tests in the assessment of welfare of cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science (Suppl) 27:82-85.

Munksgaard L, Passillé AM, Rushen J, ThodbergK., Jensen MB (1997) Discrimination of People by Dairy Cows Based on Handling. Journal of Dairy Science 80:1106–1112.

Munksgaard L, Passillé de AM, Rushen J, Herskin MS, Kristensen AM (2001) Dairy cows’ fear of people: social learning, milk yield and behaviour at milking, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73:15-26.

Novak P, Vokralova J, Tittl K, Mala G, Illek J (2010) Selected aspects of welfare and prevention of disease in ruminants. Veterinarstvi 60:25-27.

Novak P, Mala G, Jarolimkova A. 2019. Animal, housing and nutrition as prerequisite for health, reproduction and production in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the XIXth Congress International Society of Animal Hygiene, Wroclaw, Poland, pp 49-51.

Pajor EA, Rushen J, Passillé de AMB (2000) Aversion learning techniques to evaluate dairy cattle handling practices. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69:89-102.

Pajor EA, Rushen J, Passillé de AMB (2003) Dairy cattle's choice of handling treatments in a Y-maze. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 80:93-107.

Passillé de AM, Rushen J, Martin F (1995) Interpreting the behaviour of calves in an open-field test: a factor analysis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45:201-213.

Passillé de AM, Rushen, J, Ladewig J, Petherick C (1996) Dairy calves` discrimination of people based on previous handling. Journal of Animal Science 74:969-974.

Passillé de AM, Rushen J (2006) Calves’ behaviour during nursing is affected by feeding motivation and milk availability. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 101:264–275.

Paula Vieira de A, Passillé de AM, Weary DM (2012) Effects of the early social environment on behavioral responses of dairy calves to novel events. Journal of Dairy Science 95:5149–5155.

Petrikovic P, Sommer A (2002) Requirement of Nutrients for Cattle. 2nd Edition. Publication of VUZV, Nitra.

Purcell D, Arave CW (1991) Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Rhim SJ (2013) Vocalization and behavior of Holstein cows and calves after partial and complete separation. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 26:24-29.

Rushen J (1986) The Validity of Behavioural Measures of Aversion: a Review.

Rushen J, Passillé de AM (1998) Behaviour, welfare and productivity of dairy cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78 (Suppl):3-21.

Rushen J, Passillé de AMB (2014) Locomotor play of veal calves in an arena: Are effects of feed level and spatial restriction mediated by responses to novelty? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 155:34–41.

Slavik P, Illek J, Brix M, Musilova L, Rajmon R, Klabanova P, Jilek F (2009) Health Status of Beef Cows and their Calves in the Czech Republic. Acta Veterinaria Brno 78:47-56.

Stehulova I, Lidfors L, Spinka M (2008) Response of dairy cows and calves to early separation: effect of calf age and visual and auditory contact after separation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 110:144–165.

Stewart PH, Arave CW, Dias B (1992) The effect of observation on Holstein heifer's learning ability in a closed field maze. 70 (Suppl 1): 155.

Sutherland MA, Worth GM, Schütz KE, Stewart M (2014) Rearing substrate and space allowance influences locomotor play behaviour of dairy calves in an arena test. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 154:8-14.

Veissier I, Le Neindre P (1992) Reactivity of Aubrac heifers exposed to a novel environment alone or in groups of four. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33:11-15.

Veissier I (1993) Observational learning in cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35:235-243.

Veissier I, Boissy A, Nowak R, Orgeur P, Poindron P (1998) Ontogeny of social awareness in domestic herbivores. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57:233-245.

Von Keyserlingk MAG, Rushen J, de Passillé AM, Weary DM (2009) Invited review: the welfare of dairy cattle-key concepts and the role of science. Journal of Dairy Science 92:4101–4111.

Wagner K, Seitner D, Barth K, Palme R, Futschik A, Waiblinger S (2012) Integration into the dairy cow herd: Long-term effects of mother contact during the first twelve weeks of life. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 141:117–129.

Wagner K, Seitner D, Barth K, Palme R, Futschik A, Waiblinger S (2015) Effects of mother versus artificial rearing during the first 12 weeks of life on challenge responses of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 164:1–11.

Warnick VD, Arave CW, Mickelsen CH (1977) Effects of group, individual and isolated rearing of calves on weight gain and behavior. Journal of Dairy Science 60:947-953.

Watts JM, Stookey JM (2000) Vocal behaviour in cattle: the animal’s commentary on its biological processes and welfare. 67:15–33.

Watts JM, Stookey JM (2001) The propensity of cattle to vocalise during handling and isolation is affected by phenotype. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74:81–95.

Webb LE, van Reenen CG, Jensen MB, Schmitt O, Bokkers EAM (2015) Does temperament affect learning in calves? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 165:33–39.

Wechsler B, Lea SEG (2007) Adaptation by learning: Its significance for farm animal husbandry. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 108:197–214.


Submitted date:
12/08/2020

Reviewed date:
01/10/2021

Accepted date:
01/11/2021

5ff9b0e40e88259526cae7af jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J Anim Behav Biometeorol

Share this page
Page Sections