Impact of climatic variability on growth performance of Fogera cattle in Northwestern Ethiopia
This study aimed to assess the impact of climatic variability on the growth performance of the Fogera cattle at Metekel Ranch. About 15-years of meteorological data were collected from National Meteorological Agency. Then, the heat stress (HS) condition of the ranch location was calculated by the temperature-humidity index (THI). Moreover, all animals born and calves that were weaned from 2005 to 2019 were included in this study. Seasons and years of birth were fitted as predictors, while growth parameters were fitted as response variables. Data were analyzed by least-squares means analysis of variance using R software version 3.5.2 program. Moreover, a multiple linear regression model was also used. The trends in BW and WW of calves were significantly decreasing along the study period. The result also indicated that the relative humidity and ambient temperature regression coefficient was negative for BW and WW. The Pearson correlation coefficient also indicated there was a negative relationship between growth parameters and climatic variables. When THI increases from 67 to 72, the BW and WW of the calves were decreased by 3.5 and 25 kg, respectively. However, the optimum THI for higher BW and WW was less than or equal to 67. The lower BW and WW of calves observed in this study is due to the cumulative effect of the climate conditions of the study area and herd management practices. Therefore, in any improvement to be made in the ranch, environmental factors should be considered along with necessary amelioration activities.
Ababa A (2007) Climate change national adaptation programme of action (Napa) of Ethiopia. National Meteorological Services Agency, Ministry of Water Resources, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
Abera M, Mummed YY, Eshetu M, Pilla F, and Wondifraw Z (2020) Perception of Fogera Cattle Farmers on Climate Change and Variability in Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Open Journal of Animal Sciences 10:792-815.
Abera M, Yusuf Mummed Y, Eshetu M, Pilla F, and Wondifraw Z (2021) Physiological, Biochemical, and Growth Parameters of Fogera Cattle Calves to Heat Stress during Different Seasons in Sub-Humid Part of Ethiopia. Animals 11:1062.
Abraham A, and Abebe H (2018) Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed’s diversity, distribution, purpose of keeping, and their potential threats. J Bio Innov 7:770 -789.
Addisu B, Adebabay K, Bewuket S, Solomon G, and Tewodros B (2010) Conservation-Based Breeding Program for Fogera Cattle. Working Document.Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute Andassa Livestock Research Center (unpublished paper).
Addisu S, Selassie YG, Fissha G, and Gedif B (2015) Time series trend analysis of temperature and rainfall in lake Tana Sub-basin, Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research 4: 1-12.
Alberro M, and Haile-Mariam S (1982) The indigenous cattle of Ethiopia. Part I. World Animal Review.
Alemayehu A, and Bewket W (2017) Smallholder farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to climate change and variability in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Local Environment 22:825-839.
Ames D (1980) Thermal environment affects production efficiency of livestock. BioScience 30:457-460.
Asfaw A, Simane B, Hassen A, Bantider A (2018) Variability and time series trend analysis of rainfall and temperature in north-central Ethiopia: A case study in Woleka sub-basin. Weather and climate extremes 19:29-41.
Avendaño-Reyes L, Alvarez-Valenzuela FD, Correa-Calderón A, Saucedo-Quintero JS, Robinson PH, and Fadel JG (2006) Effect of cooling Holstein cows during the dry period on postpartum performance under heat stress conditions. Livestock Science 105:198-206.
Aziz Z, Varma G, Raji K, and Gleeja V (2016) Influence of temperature-humidity index on the physiological parameters and growth rate of crossbred cattle calves. International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture 3:187-189.
Baccari F, Johnson HD, and Hahn GL (1983) Environmental heat effects on growth, plasma T3, and postheat compensatory effects on Holstein's calves. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 173:312-318.
Bekele A, Wuletaw Z, Haile A, Gizaw S, and Mekuriaw G (2017) Genetic parameters for reproduction traits and correlation with pre-weaning growth traits of Fogera cattle at Metekel ranch, north west Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 29:2019.
Bitew A, and Hegde B (2002) Reproductive and growth performance of Fogera cattle and their F1 Friesian crosses at Metekel ranch, Ethiopia. Challenges and opportunities of livestock marketing in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 10th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 119-131.
Broucek J, Kisac P, Uhrincat M, Hanus A, and Benc F (2008) Effect of high temperature on growth performance of calves maintained in outdoor hutches. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 17:139.
Brown DE, Harrison PC, Hinds FC, Lewis JA, and Wallace MH (1977) Heat stress effects on fetal development during late gestation in the ewe. Journal of animal science 44: 442-446.
Colditz PJ, and Kellaway RC (1972) The effect of diet and heat stress on feed intake, growth, and nitrogen metabolism in Friesian, F1 Brahman× Friesian, and Brahman heifers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 23:717-725.
Collier RJ, Doelger SG, Head HH, Thatcher WW, and Wilcox CJ (1982) Effects of heat stress during pregnancy on maternal hormone concentrations, calf birth weight and postpartum milk yield of Holstein cows. Journal of Animal Science 54:309-319.
DAGRIS (2007) Domestic Animal Genetic Resources Information System (DAGRIS). (eds. S. Kemp, Y. Mamo, B. Asrat and Tadele Dessie). International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.http://dagris.ilri.cgiar.org.
Dash S, Chakravarty SA, U Manvendra S, and Saleem Y (2016) Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review. Veterinary World 9:235-244.
ENMA (2010) Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency. Annual report
Habeeb AA (1992) Heat stress. Farm animals and the environment.
Habeeb AA, Gad AE, and Atta MA (2018) Temperature-humidity indices as indicators to heat stress of climatic conditions with relation to production and reproduction of farm animals. Int J Biotechnol Recent Adv 1:35-50.
Ismail E, El-Latif HA, Hassan GA, and Salem MH (1995) Water metabolism and requirements of sheep as affected by breed and season. World review of animal production.
Kadzere CT, Murphy MR, Silanikove N, and Maltz E (2002) Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livestock production science 77:59-91.
Mader L, Davis M, and Brown-Brandl T (2006) Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84:712-719.
Marai IFM, El-Darawany AA, Fadiel A, and Abdel-Hafez MAM (2007) Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep – a review. Small Rumin Res 71:1–12
Menale M, Mekuriaw Z, Mekuriaw G, and Taye M (2011) Reproductive performances of Fogera cattle at Metekel Cattle Breeding and Multiplication Ranch, north-west Ethiopia. Journal of Animal and Feed Research 1:99-106.
Mengistu D, Bewket W, and Lal R (2014) Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia. International Journal of Climatology 34:2278-2292.
MRCMIC (2021) Metekel ranch cattle multiplication and improvement center report, Awi zone, Ethiopia.
Nabenishi H, and Yamazaki A (2017) Effects of the temperature-humidity index on health and growth performance in Japanese black calves. Tropical animal health and production 49:397-402.
Nanganga J, and Safalaoh AC (2020) Climate Change and Weather Variability Effects on Cattle Production: Perception of Cattle Keepers in Chikwawa, Malawi. Climate Impacts on Agricultural and Natural Resource Sustainability in Africa. Springer.
NMA (2007) Climate change national adaptation program of action of Ethiopia, edited by Abebe, T. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
NRC (1971) A guide to environmental research on animals, National Academies.
NRC (2011) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals: Washington. DC: The National Academies Press.
Padua JT, Dasilva RG, Bottcher RW, and Hoff SJ (1997) Effect of high environmental temperature on weight gain and food intake of Suffolk lambs reared in a tropical environment. In: Proceedings of 5th international symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA 809–815.
Polsky L, Von K, and Marina A (2017) Invited review: Effects of heat stress on dairy cattle welfare. Journal of dairy science 100:8645-8657.
Ravagnolo O, and Misztal I (2002) Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate in Holsteins: fixed-model analyses. Journal of dairy science 85:3101-3106.
Sejian V, Maurya VP, and Naqvi SMK (2010) Adaptability and growth of Malpura ewes subjected to thermal and nutritional stress. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42:1763–1770
Tesfa A, Kumar D, Abegaz S, and Mekuriaw G (2017) Conservation and improvement strategy for Fogera cattle: A lesson for Ethiopia ingenious cattle breed resource. Advances in Agriculture 2017.
Tesfa A, Kumar D, Abegaz S, Mekuriaw G, Bimerew T, Kebede A, Bitew A, Ferede Y, Mazengia H, and Tilahun M (2016a) Growth and reproductive performance of Fogera cattle breed at Andassa Livestock Research Center. Development 28:1.
Tesfa A, Kumar D, Abegaz S, Mekuriaw G, Bimerew T, Kebede A, Bitew A, Ferede Y, Mazengia H, and Tilahun MJD (2016b) Growth and reproductive performance of Fogera cattle breed at Andassa Livestock Research Center. 28, 1.
Ugurlu, M, Teke B, Akdag F, and Arslan S (2014) Effect of the temperature-humidity index, cold stress index and dry period length on birth weight of Jersey's calf. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 20:1227-1232.
Veerasamy S, John G, Lance B, and Cadaba P (2015) Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation Springer India.
Wang J, Li J, Wang F, Xiao J, Wang Y, Yang H, Li S, and Cao Z (2020) Heat stress on calves and heifers: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 11:1-8.
Weaver D, and Meijerhof R (1991) The effect of different levels of relative humidity and air movement on litter conditions, ammonia levels, growth, and carcass quality for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 70:746-755.
Wolfenson D, Flamenbaum I, and Berman A (1988) Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 71:809-818.
Yaylak E, Orhan H, and Daşkaya A (2015) Some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight, and daily live weight gain of Holstein's calves. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology 3:617-622.
Zeleke B, Kebede K, and Banerjee A (2016a) Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Growth Traits of Fogera and Holstein Friesian Crossbred Cattle at Metekel Ranch, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Zeleke B, Kebede K, and Kumar B (2016b) Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits of Fogera and Holstein Friesian crossbred cattle at Metekel Ranch, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Online J Anim Feed Res 6:90-95.
Zeleke T, Beyene F, Deressa T, Yousuf J, and Kebede T (2021) Vulnerability of Smallholder Farmers to Climate change-induced Shocks in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Sustainability 13:2162.
Zewdu W, Thombre BM, and Bainwad DV (2014) Effect of macroclimatic factors on milk production and reproductive efficiency of Holstein Friesian × Deoni crossbred cows Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 8:51-60.