Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
https://jabbnet.com/article/doi/10.31893/jabb.22015
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

The influence of clove leave extract (Syzygium aromaticum) on growth performance and bacterial population of broiler chickens raised in stressful conditions of high stocking density

Nur Sjafani, Said Hasan, Yusri Sapsuha

Downloads: 0
Views: 235

Abstract

Broilers maintenance at high stocking density impacts uncomfortable conditions; this increases the potential for stress, reduces feed consumption, and reduces production performance and health in broiler chickens. This study aims to evaluate the effect of clove leaf extract on growth performance and microbial population in the digestive tract of broiler chickens reared at high density. From the eighth day, five treatment groups, T0 (negative control with a typical density of 10 birds/m2), T1 (positive control with a high density of 16 birds/m2), T2, T3, and T4 with a high density of 16 birds/m2, were randomly assigned from 444 broilers (bodyweight of 129.78±0.75 g) with six repetitions each on the eighth day. The feed includes clove leave extract as much as 0.5, 0.75, and 1 ml/kg for T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were tracked weekly. One chicken from each replicate was taken randomly, slaughtered, and feathered on day 35. The digesta was taken from the ileum and cecum to measure the intestinal bacterial population and put into a sterile container. Digesta from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were also collected to determine pH levels. MRS agar was used to determine the amount of LAB in the digesta. The findings revealed that giving clove leaf extract of feed to broiler chickens kept at high stocking density could higher body weight gain (P < 0.05), higher feed consumption (P < 0.05), decreased the pH of the ileum and cecum (P < 0.05), increased lactic acid bacteria and decreased coliform bacteria in the ileum and cecum (P < 0.05).

Keywords

bacterial population, broiler, clove leaf, performance, weight gain

References

Adu OA, Gbore FA, Oloruntola OD, Falowo AB and Olarotimi OJ (2020) The effects of Myristica fragrans seed meal and Syzygium aromaticum leaf meal dietary supplementation on growth performance and oxidative status of broiler chicken. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 44:149.

Al-Mufarrej SI, Al-Baadani HH, Fazea EH (2019) Effect of level of inclusion of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder in the diet on growth and histological changes in the intestines and livers of broiler chickens. South African Journal Animal Science 49:166–175.

Bhowmik D, Kumar KPS, Yadav A, Srivastava S, Paswan S, Dutta SS (2012) Recent trends in Indian traditional herb Syzygium aromaticum and its health benefits. J Pharmacog Phytochem 1:1–23.

Dozier III W A, Thaxton J P, Branton S I, Morgan G W, Miles D M, Roush W B (2005) Stocking density effects on growth performance and processing yields of heavy broilers. Poultry Science 84:1332-8.

Ferdous MF, Arefin MS, Rahman MM, Ripon MMR, Rashid MH, Sultana MR, Hossain MT, Ahammad MU, Rafiq K (2019)  Beneficial effects of probiotic and phytobiotic as growth promoter alternative to antibiotic for safe broiler production. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res. 6:409–415.

Guardia S, Konsak B, Combes S, Levenez F, Cauquil L, Guillot J F, Moreau-Vauzelle C, Lessire M, Juin H, Gabriel I (2011) Effects of stocking density on the growth performance and digestive microbiota of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 90:1878–1889.

Imaeda N (2000) Influence of the stocking density and rearing season on incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci 79:201-4.

Jamroz D, Orda J, Kamel C, Wiliczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T and Skorupinska J (2003) The influence of phytogenic extracts on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gut microbial status in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 12:583-596.

Jeong SB, Kim YB, Jeong WL, Kim DH, Moon BH, Chang HH, Choi YH and Lee KW (2020) Role of dietary gamma-aminobutyric acid in broiler chickens raised under high stocking density. Animal Nutrition 6:293-304

Krás RV, Kessler AM, Ribeiro AML, Henn JD, Bockor L, Sbrissia AF (2013) Effect of dietary fibre, genetic strain and age on the digestive metabolism of broiler chickens. Brazilian J. of Poult. Sci. 15:83-90.

Lara LJ, Rostagno MH (2013) Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals 3:356-369.

Mabelebele M, Alabi OJ, Ng`ambi JW, Norris D, Ginindza MM (2014) Comparison of gastrointestinal tracts and pH values of digestive organs of Ross 308 broiler and indigenous Venda chickens fed the same diet. Asian J of Anim. Vet. Adv. 9:71-76

Mahrous HB, El-far AH, Sadek KM, Abdel-Latif MA (2017) Effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) dietary supplementation on immunity, antioxidant status, and performance in broiler chickens. Alexandria J Vet Sci. 54:29–39.

Murugesan GR, Syed B, Haldar S, Pender C (2015) Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens. Frontiers Veterinary Science 2:21.

Ngasotter S, Waikhom D, Mukherjee S, Devi M S, Singh A S (2020) Diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented fish products: a review. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 9:2238-2249.

Nobakht M, Darmani-Kuhi H, Mohiti-Asli M (2016) Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss (thyme) extract on intestinal bacterial populations, meat cholesterol and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets with and without fat. Journal Animal Production Research 5:1-10.

Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Adeyeye SA, Jimoh OA, Oloruntola DA, Omoniyi SI (2019) Pawpaw leaf and seed meals composite mix dietary supplementation: effects on broiler chicken’s performance, caecum microflora, and blood analysis. Agroforestry Systems 94:555–564.

Rahmani HR, Speer W, Modirsanei M (2005) The effect of intestinal pH on broiler performance and immunity. Intl J. Poult Sci. 4:713-717.

Sanlibaba P, Çakmak G A (2016) Exopolysaccharides production by lactic acid bacteria. Appl. Micro. 2:1.

Sapsuha Y, Suprijatna E, Kismiati S, Sugiharto S (2021) The effect of nutmeg flesh (Myristica fragrans Houtt) extract on growth performance, internal organ and carcass of broiler chickens raised at high stocking density. Livestock Research for Rural Development 33:6. 

Shakeri M, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, o'Reilly EL, Eckersall PD, Anna AA (2014) Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions. Poultry Sci 93:2700-8.

Simitzis PE, Kalogeraki E, Goliomytis M, Charismiadou MA, Triantaphyllopoulos K, Ayoutanti A, Niforou K, Hager-Theodorides AL, Deligeorgis SG (2012) Impact of stocking density on broiler growth performance, meat characteristics, behavioural components and indicators of physiological and oxidative stress. Br. Poult. Sci. 53:721–730.

Song J,  Xiao K,  Ke YL,  Jiao LF, Hu CH, Diao QY, Shi B, Zou XT (2014) Effect of a probiotic mixture on intestinal microflora, morphology, and barrier integrity of broilers subjected to heat stress. Poult. Sci. 93:581-588.

Sulieman AME, Elboshra IMO, Elkhalifa EAA (2007) Nutritive value of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and detection of antimicrobial effect of its bud oil. Res J Microbiol 2:266–271.

Sugiharto S (2016) Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 15:99–111.

Sugiharto S, Turini Y, Isroli I, Widiastuti E, Kusumanti E (2017) Dietary supplementation of probiotics in poultry exposed to heat stress – a review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 17:591–604.

Yadav S, Jha R (2019) Strategies to modulate the intestinal microbiota and their effects on nutrient utilization, performance, and health of poultry. Journal of Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 10:2.

Yin LY, Wang ZY, Yang HM, Xu L, Zhang J, Xing H (2017) Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. Poultry Science 96:3163-3168.


Submitted date:
11/25/2021

Reviewed date:
01/13/2022

Accepted date:
01/19/2022

61e32d15a9539577a222c2e3 jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J Anim Behav Biometeorol

Share this page
Page Sections