Influence of microclimate on ketosis, mastitis and diseases of cow reproductive organs
This study investigated the influence of the farm microclimate parameters in different seasons on the incidence of ketosis, foot diseases, reproductive diseases, and mastitis in three dairy farms of North Kazakhstan. Microclimate parameters were recorded in four seasons: summer, autumn, winter, and spring. The average temperature was 1.2 °C above the established norm in summer and 1.7 °C below the established norm in winter. The humidity was below the norm by 9.7% and 1.6% in summer and autumn, respectively, and above the norm by 9.6 % and 6.6 % in winter and spring, respectively. The airflow was 0.1 m/s lower than the norm in summer, winter, and spring. The general illumination was 3.8 and 2.6 LUX lower than the norm in winter and spring, respectively. The average morbidity (cumulative incidence of all four diseases) was 63.8% (highest) in the winter, followed by spring (60.0%). Average morbidity was considerably less in summer and autumn at 46.7% and 37.1%, respectively. Study results indicate that minor deviations in microclimate parameters from the norms, particularly in winter and spring, can considerably impact the disease incidence on dairy farms in Kazakhstan. The farm management should strive to maintain microclimate conditions on the farm as close to the norm as possible during different seasons to avoid losses from livestock morbidity.
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